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The resistor is the most common and well-known of the passive electrical components. A resistor resists or limits the flow of electric current in a circuit. There are many uses for resistors: they are used to drop voltage, limit current, attenuate signals, act as heaters, act as fuses, furnish electrical loads and divide voltages.
In electronic circuits, resistors are used to reduce current flow, adjust signal levels, to divide voltages, bias active elements, and terminate transmission lines, among other uses.
Resistance is the property of a conductor, which determines the quantity of current that passes through it when a potential difference is applied across it. A resistor is a electrical componet with a predetermined electrical resistance, like 1 ohm, 10 ohms 100 ohms 10000 ohms etc
Ohm’s law is a simple equation that shows the relationship between resistance, voltage and current through a metal
wire, or some other type of resistive material. In mathematical terms, Ohm’s law is written as:
I = V/R, where I is the current (amps), V is the voltage, and R is the resistance.
Ohm’s law can also show the relationship between resistance, voltage and power using the following equation:
P = V2/R, where P is the power (watts), V is the voltage, and R is the resistance
The power rating of a resistor is measured in watts, and it's usually somewhere between ⅛W (0.125W) and 1W. Resistors with power ratings of more than 1W are usually referred to as power resistors, and are used specifically for their power dissipating abilities.
The tolerance of a resistor is the maximum difference between its actual value and the required value and is generally expressed as a plus or minus percentage value. For example, a 1kΩ ±20% tolerance resistor may have a maximum and minimum resistive value of: Maximum Resistance Value.
TCR is expressed as the change in resistance in ppm (0.0001 %) with each degree Celsius of change in temperature. TCR is typically referenced at + 25 ˚C and changes as the temperature increases (or decreases). A resistor with a TCR of 100 ppm/°C will change 0.1 % over a 10 °C change and 1 % over a 100 °C change. In the context of a resistor network, the TCR value is called the absolute TCR in that it defines the TCR of a specific resistor element. The term TCR tracking refers to the difference in TCR between each specific resistor in a network.
Resistor manufacturers define an STOL (short-time-overload) condition, the degree of which varies depending on the type of resistor. For power wirewound resistors, STOL can be two to 10 times the rated power for 5 or 10 sec.
A dielectric withstand test (or pressure test, high potential or hipot test) is an electrical test performed on a component or product to determine the effectiveness of its insulation. The test may be between mutually insulated sections of a part or energized parts and electrical ground. The test is a means to qualify a device's ability to operate safely during rated electrical conditions.
An insulation resistance (IR) test measures the total resistance between any two points separated by electrical insulation. The test, therefore, determines how effective the dielectric (insulation) is in resisting the flow of electrical current.
The maximum value of voltage capable of being applied to resistors for a short period of time in the overload test.
Typically, the applied voltage in the short time overload test is 2.5 times larger than the rated voltage. However, it should not exceed the maximum overload voltage.
The maximum value of DC voltage or AC voltage (rms) capable of being applied continuously to resistors or element. However, the maximum value of the applicable voltage is the rated voltage at the critical resistance value or lower.